Monday, August 11

Pearlscale Goldfish | Pearlscale Care

The pearlscale or chinshurin in Japanese is a spherical-bodied fancy goldfish with finnage similar to the fantail. Pearscale or pearlscale Goldfish originated in the early 1900s and it is one of the more recent additions to the fancy goldfish family.

Ping pong pearlscale goldfish

Quick stats of Pearlscale:
  • Depth of body to be greater than 2/3 of body length
  • Scales to be domed
  • Dorsal fin to be single, all other fins to be paired.
  • Caudal fin to be divided and forked and held above the horizontal.
  • Extremities of fins to have a slightly rounded appearance.
  • Minimum length of body to be 5.5 cm (2¼ inches). 
Temperament and care of pearlscale goldfish: Pearlscales are egg shaped with internal organs crowding the creature's compact body, therefore overfeeding should be avoided. Pearlscales are very sensitive to cold water and should not be exposed to temperature readings below 55°F (13°C) and are also quite vulnerable to pH changes and should not be exposed for long periods to a high acidity or alkalinity environment.

Breeding pearlscale goldfish: Due to their delicate scales and the risk of injury during natural spawning, it might be advisable to employ the hand spawning method with pearlscale goldfish.

Choosing pearlscale goldfish: The best pearlscales have a body that is extremely rounded. The body should have a depth of at least 2/3 of its length.


Friday, August 8

Oranda Goldfish | Oranda Goldfish Care

An oranda is a breed of goldfish characterized by a prominent bubbly-like hood encasing its head. The hood or headgrowth (also known as wen) encases the whole head except for the eyes and mouth. It is like a Veiltail Goldfish but with a bit shorter tail, and develops a hood similar to the Lionhead Goldfish! This beautiful gold fish has a large round shape, shimmering scales, and a long flowing split caudal (tail) fin that fans out when it comes to a stop.

Oranda Goldfish

When it was first imported from China to Japan it was mistakenly thought to be native to Holland, and was therefore dubbed the "Dutch Ironmask", from which its English name "oranda" derives.

The Oranda Goldfish is one of the most popular goldfish in the world. It is favored for its hood, a fleshy growth on the top of its head called the wen. The oranda can reach 20 to 31 centimeters (8 to 12 inches) in length.  The wen starts to show at about 3 - 4 months, but only really begins to form at about 1 - 2 years. The hood gets fully developed when the fish gets to be about 2-2 1/2 years old.

Orandas are sensitive to low water temperatures and susceptible to the attention of other active goldfish. The Oranda can tolerate temperatures from 17-28°C (65-80+°F). Oranda goldfish are especially sensitive to cold temperatures, more so than other goldfish.  If their wen grows too much, it may hinder vision, so it is advised to keep them with others that have this disability in order to make sure that they do not starve because of the able-sighted competition. Their wen is also susceptible to injury from rough objects placed in their residence.

Lionhead goldfish | the lionhead

The lionhead goldfish is the oldest and arguably the most popular of the dorsal-less goldfish breeds. The fish has a hooded variety of fancy goldfish. It is the oldest of the dorsal-less breeds, originating as an offshoot from the Eggfish.  The Lionhead originated in China around the 1600s.

Lionhead goldfish

Bred in China to depict the image of the mythical lion-dog, the lionhead is characterized by the ‘wen’, or head growth, that covers its head. They were introduced to Japan from China during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Japanese produced lionheads with more rounded back profiles, modified tails and diminished size of the head growth.

Lionheads can grow up to 6 inches (15 cm) in length (including finnage) and may have metallic, nacreous or matte scales. They are available in orange, red, white, red-and-white, blue, black, black-and-white, black-and-red, natural, and chocolate coloration.

Lionheads, like all goldfish, are omnivores and will readily accept any plant or animal matter based food. A high protein diet will encourage more vibrant colors and greater hood growth in lionheads.

Breeding lionhead goldfish: Like most other fancy goldfish varieties, Lionheads aren’t exceptionally difficult to breed and can be encouraged to spawn given the right conditions of a healthy diet, adequate tank space and appropriate water temperatures.

Choosing lionhead goldfish: When purchasing lionhead goldfish it’s important to look for fish with a body depth of ½ or more of their body length. The lionhead’s back should be a smooth and shallow arch from head to tail with no ridges or spikes. A lionhead’s hood should be full, dense and symmetrical on all sides.

Fantail Goldfish | All about Fantail Goldfish

Fantail GoldfishThe Fantail goldfish is the western form of the Ryukin that possesses an egg-shaped body, a high dorsal fin, a long quadruple caudal fin, and no shoulder hump. It is a beautiful fish, calming to watch and a delight to own. The fantail goldfish originated in the early 1400s, during the Ming Dynasty of China and the ancestor from which all modern fancy goldfish breeds descended.

Fantails come in a variety of colors, including red, orange, yellow and calico varieties.

Here are some basic tips for looking after a Fantail goldfish, especially for those just getting started: 

Breeding fantail goldfish: Fantails are among the easiest of the fancy goldfish varieties to breed and will usually spawn readily given adequate conditions. Good-quality Fantails are produced by rigorous fry selection. 

Choosing fantail goldfish: When choosing fantail goldfish for purchase, it is important to note that the body, which is tear drop or egg shaped, has a depth of at least 3/5 of its length. A shorter body length compared to the depth is always preferred in fantails. Although generally considered a hardy goldfish, Fantails can be sensitive to prolonged exposure to low water temperatures. Keeping Fantails in an aquarium requires an ideal temperature of 73 to 74 degrees Fahrenheit

Thursday, August 7

Comet Goldfish | Comet-tailed Goldfish

Photo of Comet Goldfish

The Comet Goldfish is much like the common goldfish, but is a more reddish orange color and has a much longer, deeper forked tail fin! The comet or comet-tailed goldfish is a single-tailed goldfish bred in the United States. The fish is similar to the common goldfish, except slightly smaller and slimmer, and is mainly distinguished by its long deeply forked tail. It is the most graceful of the elongated goldfish, emphasized by their long tail.

This fish was the first variety of the single-tail goldfish to be developed with a long caudal (tail) fin and the comet-tailed goldfish breed was developed in the United States from the common goldfish by Hugo Mulertt, a government worker, in the 1880s. The first comet goldfish was first seen in the ponds of the U.S. Government Fish Commission in Washington, D.C.

These fish can be quite personable and are delightful to watch. One of the hardiest of the gold fish varieties, the Comet Goldfish are recommended for beginners. They are an easy fish to keep as they are not picky and will readily eat what is offered.

Comet GoldfishThe Comet Goldfish is an elongated, flat-bodied variety of goldfish. The head is wide but short and it has a smoothly tapering body shape, from its back and belly to the base of its caudal fin (tail fin). The caudal fin is long, deeply forked and generally stands fully erect. 

The Comet Goldfish is primarily a reddish orange color, but they are also available in yellow, orange, white, and red.  Comets with yellow, orange, red, white, and red-and-white coloration are common. The red coloration mainly appears on the tailfin and dorsal fin, but can also appear on the pelvic fin.

Since they are omnivorous, the Comet Goldfish will generally eat all kinds of fresh, frozen, and flake foods. To keep a good balance gives them a high quality flake food everyday.


Celestial eye goldfish

Celestial Eye Goldfish

Celestial eye goldfish is a double-tailed breed of fancy goldfish that has a breed-defining pair of telescope eyes which are turned upwards, pupils gazing skyward. The fish has an elongated egg-shaped body similar to the Bubble Eye. Celestial eye goldfish is also known as Stargazer Goldfish, Celestial Goldfish, Deme-Ranchu, Choten gan etc.

When the fry hatch, the eyes of young Celestials are normal but gradually protrude sideways, as in the Telescope eye goldfish, and then turn upwards within a period of six months.

With eyes that are permanently looking skyward, the Celestial Eye Goldfish is known by the Chinese as the Stargazer!

Celestial Eye GoldfishThe body is short and stubby and they have a double caudal (tail) fin and a double anal fin. Their most distinctive feature is the eyes which extend out from the sides of the head and are locked into a permanent upward looking position. In juveniles the eye are normal, but within a short time the eyes begin to protrude and then the upturned vision develop and becomes locked in. They are most commonly seen with metallic scales colored shades of orange (called 'red' by fanciers), white, or red and white. Celestials with nacreous scales are known but rarely seen.

Since they are omnivorous, the Celestial Eye Goldfish will generally eat all kinds of fresh, frozen, and flake foods.


Thursday, July 31

Bloodfin Tetra | Freshwater Aquarium Fish

The bloodfin tetra (Aphyocharax anisitsi) is a popular freshwater aquarium fish which belongs to the family Characidae under Order Characiformes of Class Actinopterygii. It is a species of characin from the Paraná River basin in South America. The bloodfin tetra is also known as True Bloodfin, Glass Bloodfin and Red Finned Tetra.

bloodfin tetra

The bloodfin tetra is an excellent community species that grows up to 5.5 cm in length and can live up to 10 years. Its notable feature (as the name suggest) is the blood-red colouration of the tail, dorsal, anal and adipose fin, while the body is silver in color. The bloodfin tetra has a slender and elongated body with small mouth. Body is silver in color and it is easily recognized due to their colorful fins.

It is an omnivore and in wild condition, it feeds chiefly on crustaceans, worms and small insects. The male bloodfin tetra is a bit more colorful than the female and it has a small hook on the anal fin.

Quick fact sheet of Bloodfin Tetra
Scientific/ Binomial name: Aphyocharax anisitsi (C. H. Eigenmann & C. H. Kennedy, 1903)
Kingdom:          Animalia
Family:  Characidae
Kingdom:          Animalia
Phylum:            Chordata
Class:   Actinopterygii
Order:   Characiformes
Family:  Characidae 
Subfamily:         Aphyocharacinae
Genus:  Aphyocharax
Size Range:       up to 5.5 cm in length
Diet:     Omnivore
Tank Size:         10+ gallons
Tank Set-up:     Densely planted
Tank region:      It swims surface and Middle layer
Temperature:    64.5 – 82.5°F
Carbonate Alkalinity (dKH):       30
Carbonate Hardness (dKH):      4-12
Water pH:         6-8
Origin:  Argentina and Rio Parana
Temperament:   Peaceful
Care Level:       Easy
Habitat: South America river basins
Lifespan:           5 to 8 years
Reproduction:    Egg layers
Breeding:          The Bloodfin tetra is also easy to breed in captivity.
Water Movement:         Slow to Medium

Aquarium care / Bloodfin Tetra Care: The bloodfin tetra is a great choice for the trainee aquarium hobbyist due to their peaceful behavior and easy care level.

Bloodfin tetras are typically kept in schools of five or more. They swim mainly in the upper and middle water layers and are highly sociable fishes, mixing well with other types of tetras and tropical fish in general, so are often kept in a community tank. Many aquarists use a blue background in the aquarium to bring out the colors of their bloodfin tetras. However, they will tend to nip at the fins of fish with long, wavy fins, such as angelfish or guppies. Bloodfin tetras have also been kept in cold-water tanks, provided the temperature does not drop below room temperature.

It requires 10 gallons or larger aquarium for 6 or more tetras of same size. Tetras are adapted to soft and slightly acidic water which is essential for breeding. The aquarium should have good water quality and suitable water temperature and pH that range from 64.5 – 82.5°F and 6-8 respectively.
bloodfin tetra

Feeding/Diet: It is an omnivore fish. In captive condition it should be fed a variety of diet such as brine shrimp, high quality flakes, frozen or freeze dried blood worms, glass worm, live Bloodworms, Micro pellet food, Daphnia and tubifex.

Breeding: The tetra often spawns spontaneously. At the time of spawning it jumps above the surface of the water and releases the eggs in the water. The eggs, being heavy, fall to the floor of the tank or water body. The female deposits 300–500 eggs.

Sunday, July 13

Bubble Eye Goldfish

The Bubble Eye is a small variety of fancy goldfish with upward pointing eyes that are accompanied by two large fluid-filled sacs. It is a dorsal-less fish, and good specimens will have a clean back and eye bubbles well matched for color and size.

Bubble Eye Goldfish

The Bubble Eye normally has an evenly curved back that lacks a fin. The pair of large pouches of skin attached under its eyes jiggle as it swims. Bubble Eyes have metallic scales and they are similar to the celestial eye goldfish. They normally grow up to 3 to 4 inches in length.

Black Moor Goldfish | Black Moor Care

The Black moor is a telescope-eyed variety of fancy goldfish that has a characteristic pair of protruding eyes. It is also referred to as popeye, telescope, kuro demekin in Japan and dragon-eye in China.

Black Moor Goldfish

Black moor goldfish are popular because they are hardy fish and because their black color sets them apart from the more common gold color. Goldfish are typically easy to care for. Black moors in particular are able to withstand a wide variety of temperatures. They do well with other fancy goldfish varieties.

Common Goldfish | Common Goldfish care

The common goldfish is the simplest variation of all goldfish breeds and is the fish that most resembles its carp ancestors.

Common goldfish or hibuna are a type of goldfish with no other modifications from their ancestors other than their color. Most varieties of fancy goldfish were derived from this simple breed. Common goldfish come in a variety of colors including red, orange/gold, white, black and yellow or "lemon" goldfish.

The common goldfish is differing only in color from their closest relative, the Prussian carp. Common goldfish come in a variety of colors including red, orange/gold, white, black and yellow or 'lemon' goldfish.

Common goldfish are social animals that prefer living in groups. They are able to interact with any fish belonging to the same species. With provision of adequate care and attention, common goldfish can become tame. Once familiar with the face of its owner, swimming towards the fish keeper during feeding time can be observed and hand-feeding becomes possible.

Given adequate space and food, common goldfish will spawn quite readily and prolifically. In fact, it is quite ordinary for common goldfish to overpopulate a pond within a few months of being introduced!

Goldfish | Gold fish

Goldfish are small freshwater ornamental fish that are commonly kept in aquariums and ponds. The goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. The fish was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated.


A relatively small member of the carp family, the goldfish is a domesticated version of a less-colorful carp (Carassius auratus) native to East Asia. The fish was first domesticated in China more than a thousand years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration and coloration (various combinations of white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black are known).

Goldfish are rewarding pets to have. Their proper care, however, is not always taken into consideration, and here I have only just begun to understand the best ways to make these beautiful fish thrive. If you're looking to breed goldfish, have one as a pet, or are simply curious about what it might be like, I describe here how to make this pet fish happy and healthy! Keep in touch and follow the advice…

  1. Tank Requirements and Care:
    1. Get a large enough tank: The minimal tank size for one goldfish is 30 US gallons and you will need to add 10 U.S. gallons onto that for each additional goldfish.
    2. Use gravel that won't get stuck in your fish's throat: Use either large rocks or very small gravel for this lovely pet.
    3. Make sure your tank has some scenery and light: Goldfish don't require light, light is only for seeing the fish better and making its colors "pop". Like Keep your aquarium lit for around 8-12 hours each day.
    4. Rig up a water filter: Goldfish need a filter. A water filter should take care of the breaking down of the fish’s waste by beneficial bacteria; the trapping of larger particles such as fish waste or excess fish food; and the removal of odors, discolorations and other organics by carbon or mineral absorption.
    5. Go through at least one fish-less cycle before introducing your goldfish: A fish-less cycle involves adding ammonia to a tank and keeping track of the nitrate levels to make sure the water is safe for your goldfish to live in.
  2. Upkeep and Feeding:
    1. Add your fish: Hopefully, if you have more than one goldfish in your tank, your goldfish are all the same type. Unfortunately, goldfish are known to eat other, smaller fish, and can overeat, keeping food from their peers.
    2. Add your fish: Perform a 25% up to 90% water change weekly assuming you have stocked your tank properly.
    3. Clean the aquarium at least once every week, even if it doesn't look dirty: Goldfish produce waste that even your water filter won't be able to zap. A clean tank means happy, healthy goldfish. And a happy, healthy goldfish can live for decades!
    4. Measure for ammonia, nitrite, and pH: Dear fish lover remember that, test you did before you added your precious little fishes? You gotta keep that up already! Ammonia and nitrite levels should be at 0. A range of pH 6.5-8.25 is fine.
    5. Feed your fish 1-2 times daily: My friends be careful not to overfeed them, only feed them what they can eat in a minute, the label on the food is wrong. Goldfish can easily overeat and can die. Underfeeding is always preferable to overfeeding.
    6. Turn off the light and let them get some sleep: They don't have eyelids and they don't really stop swimming, but their bodies sort of hibernate. You can tell when you notice a slight change in color and reduced activity.
    7. Let the water temperature change as the seasons change: Goldfish don't like temperatures over 75°F (24°C), but they appear to like seasonal changes where the temperature dips to the high 50s or 60s (15-20°C) in the winter.
  3. Dealing with Potential Problems:
    1. Monitor the oxygen level in the tank: If you notice your goldfish are congregating to the surface, odds are there isn't enough in the water. But good news! Oxygen levels will rise with a temperature reduction. So lower the temperature or get your aquarium out of the sun.
    2. Fix cloudy aquarium water: Sometimes even when we put forth our best efforts, things still go a bit awry. Water can turn yellow, green, or even white. If you notice it straight away, it's not a big deal. But do get to clean your tank!
    3. Watch for goldfish disease ich: One of the most common goldfish diseases is Ich -- where the fish get little white spots on their bodies and fins and have difficulty breathing. It's a parasite that's totally curable.
    4. Monitor for Flukes: Another parasite that's a common culprit is Flukes. If infected, your fish will scratch against surfaces, develop outer mucus, redden slightly, and possibly get a swollen belly.
    5. Look for swim bladder disease: This one's pretty easy to identify, as your fish will be swimming sideways or even upside-down. You'd think he was up in fishy heaven, but no such luck. But there is luck in that it's not contagious and it can be readily fixed.
    6. If a fish has died, take the proper measures: First things first, dispose of your fish in a way that won't stink up the house. You can bury it, or, if you feel so inclined, throw it in the compost heap. Do not flush the fish down the toilet! Grab it from the tank with a plastic bag around your hands, invert the bag, and tie it up. How you clean your aquarium depends on your situation.
Varieties of domesticated goldfish: Selective breeding over centuries has produced several color variations, some of them far removed from the "golden" color of the originally domesticated fish. There are also different body shapes, fin and eye configurations. Currently, there are about 300 breeds recognized in China. The vast majority of goldfish breeds today originated from China. Some of the main varieties are given bellow: 
  • Common goldfish
  • Black Moor
  • Bubble Eye
  • Celestial Eye
  • Comet (goldfish)
  • Fantail (goldfish)
  • Lionhead (goldfish)
  • Oranda
  • Pearlscale
  • Pompom (goldfish)
  • Ryukin
  • Shubunkin
  • Telescope eye
  • Ranchu
  • Panda Moor
  • Veiltail
  • Butterfly tail (goldfish)
  • Meteor goldfish
  • Lionchu
  • Egg-fish goldfish
  • Shukin
  • Curled-gill goldfish
  • Tamasaba        
  • Tosakin 
Information sources:

Saturday, June 28

Top 10 Most Dangerous Fishes | Top 10 Deadly Fishes

Different people share various different kinds of fear. Fear of height, fear of flight, fear of exams, fear of animals etc. This article is about some extremely dangerous fishes around the World. Fishes are amongst the beautiful creatures in the world. The nature has gifted us with countless fish species. Some of them are used for eating, while others are just kept in artificial aquariums to beautify our environment. Despite the fact that the fishes are very beautiful, sometimes they prove to be extremely dangerous as well. Here are the top 10 most dangerous fishes under the blue water.

The Stonefish: Synanceia or Stonefish is a genus of fish of the family Synanceiidae, the Stonefishes, whose members are venomous, dangerous, and even fatal to humans. It is one of the most venomous fish in the world. They are found in the coastal regions of Indo-Pacific oceans as well as off the coast of Florida and in the Caribbean.
Stone Fish

Great White Shark: The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), also known as the great white, white pointer, white shark, or white death, is a species of large lamniform shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The great white shark is mainly known for its size, with mature individuals growing up to 6.4 m (21 ft) in length (although reports have been published of great white sharks measuring over 8 m (26 ft), and 3,324 kg (7,328 lb) in weight). Read More…
great white shark

Black Piranha: The black piranhas have the most powerful bites of carnivorous fishes, living or extinct, once body size is taken into account, researchers find. The black piranha has jaw muscles of an 'extraordinary' size and a highly modified jaw-closing lever. In fact, the muscle complex makes more than two percent of the black piranha's total body mass. This allows the fish to exert bite force equivalent to 30 times its bodyweight.
Black Piranha
The measured bite force of the black piranha, at 320 Newton (N), was nearly three times greater than that exerted by an American alligator of comparative size.

Lionfish: Pterois, commonly known as lionfish, is a genus of venomous marine. It is characterized by red, white and black bands, showy pectoral fins and venomous spiky fin rays. The lionfish is one of the most venomous fish on the ocean floor. Lionfish have venomous dorsal spines that are used purely for defense. When threatened, the fish often faces its attacker in an upside down posture which brings its spines to bear. Read More…

Goliath Tiger Fish: Goliath Tigerfish, also known as the Hydrocynus goliath, giant tigerfish or mbenga, is a very large African predatory freshwater fish of the Alestidae family. The Goliath tigerfish puts more energy into killing than breeding. It can take a local population between five and 14 years to double in size. Ergo, every one you release helps ensure that the monsters remain in adequate numbers to keep the ecosystem in stasis.
Goliath Tigerfish

Bull Shark: The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), also known as the Zambezi shark or, unofficially, as Zambi in Africa and Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is a shark commonly found worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers. Bull sharks have the strongest bite of any shark species, scientists have discovered. The bull sharks have a bite force of up to 600 kilograms (1,300 lb), pound for pound the highest among all investigated cartilaginous fishes.
Bull Shark

Pointed sawfish: Pointed sawfishes, also known as carpenter sharks, Smalltooth Sawfish or Wide Sawfish, are a family (Pristidae) of rays characterized by a long, narrow, flattened rostrum, or nose extension, lined with sharp transverse teeth, arranged so as to resemble a saw. All species in the family are either endangered or critically endangered.  Several species of sawfishes can grow to about 7 m (23 ft). The family as a whole is largely unknown and little studied. The Pristidae are the only living family within the order Pristiformes, whose name comes from the Ancient Greek. Read More…

Electric Eel: The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is an electric fish, and the only species in its genus. It is capable of generating powerful electric shocks of up to 600 volts and 1 ampere of current (600 watts). It would be extremely unlikely for such a shock to be deadly for an adult human, due to the very short duration of an eel's discharge
Electric Eel

Tiger Shark: The tiger shark is a solitary, mostly nocturnal hunter, and is notable for having the widest food spectrum all sharks, consuming a variety of prey ranging from crustaceans, fish, seals, birds, squid, turtles, and sea snakes to dolphins and even other smaller sharks. The tiger shark has been known to eat inedible manmade objects that linger in its stomach, and it has a reputation as a "garbage eater". When attacking, the tiger shark often eats its prey whole, although larger prey are often eaten in gradual large bites and finished over time. Read More...
Tiger Shark

Chironex (Box Jellyfish): Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae. Stings from these and a few other species in the class are extremely painful and sometimes fatal to humans. A few species of Chironex (Box Jellyfish) have been confirmed to be involved in human deaths.
Box Jellyfish

Wednesday, June 25

Electroreceptive Fish or Electroreception in fish

Electroreception is the ability to perceive the world via electricity. This non-human sense has been discovered in many fishes like as Electric ray or Pacific Torpedo Ray, Stellate Sturgeon or starry, Scalloped Hammerhead Shark or Hammerhead sharks, Pacific Lamprey, Thornback Skate, Sandbar Shark, Chimaera. They used it for detecting objects around them.

Chimaeras: Chimaeras are cartilaginous fishes in the order Chimaeriformes, known informally as ghost sharks, ratfish, spookfish or rabbitfishes. They may be the oldest and most enigmatic groups of fishes alive today. Chimaera



Coelacanth: The coelacanths constitute a rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and the Indonesian coelacanth. Coelacanth
Pacific lamprey: The Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is an anadromous parasitic lamprey from the Pacific Coast of North America and Asia. Lamprey, any of about 43 species of primitive… Pacific lamprey

Pacific lamprey

Pacific electric ray

Pacific electric ray: The Pacific electric ray (Torpedo californica) is a species of electric ray in the family Torpedinidae, endemic to the coastal waters of the northeastern Pacific Ocean from Baja CaliforniaElectric Ray
Sandbar shark: The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, is a species of requiem shark, family Carcharhinidae, native to the Atlantic Ocean and the Indo-Pacific. It is distinguishable by its very high first dorsal… Read more…

Sandbar shark

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

Scalloped Hammerhead Shark: Sharks have been around for over hundreds of millions of years. While many of us may be familiar with a few shark species, there are over 400 of them and Scalloped Hammerhead… Read more…
Stellate Sturgeon or Starry Sturgeon: The Stellate Sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus, also known as starry sturgeon or sevruga is a species of sturgeon. It is native to the Black, Azov, Caspian and Aegean SeaRead more…

Stellate Sturgeon or Starry Sturgeon

Thornback ray or thornback skate

Thornback ray or thornback skate: The thornback ray (Raja clavata) or thornback skate is a species of fish in the Rajidae family. It is found in coastal waters of Europe and the Atlantic coast of Africa, possibly… Read more…

Thornback Skate | Thornback ray

The thornback ray (Raja clavata) or thornback skate is a species of fish in the Rajidae family. It is found in coastal waters of Europe and the Atlantic coast of Africa, possibly as far south as Namibia and even South Africa. Its natural habitats are open seas and shallow seas. It is sometimes seen trapped in large estuarine pools at low tide. 

Thornback Skate or Thornback ray

The thornback ray is probably one of the most common rays encountered by divers. Like all rays, it has a flattened body with broad, wing-like pectoral fins. The body is kite-shaped with a long, thorny tail. The back is covered in numerous thorny spines, as is the underside in older females. Adult fish can grow to 1 m (3.3 ft) in length, although most are less than 85 cm (33.67 in). This ray can weigh from 4.5 to 8.75 lb (2 to 4 kg). 

In sexually mature fish, some of the spines are thickened with button-like bases (known as bucklers). These are particularly well developed on the tails and backs of sexually mature females. Their colours vary from light brown to grey with darker blotches and numerous small darker spots and yellow patches. Sometimes the yellow patches are surrounded by small dark spots. The underside is creamy-white with a greyish margin.When threatened they can appear black. 

The thornback ray is usually found on sedimentary seabeds such as mud, sand or gravel at depths between 10 and 60 m. Juvenile fish feed on small crustaceans, particularly amphipods and bottom-living shrimps; adults feed on crabs, shrimps and small fish.

Stellate Sturgeon | Starry Sturgeon

The Stellate Sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus, also known as starry sturgeon or sevruga is a species of sturgeon. It is native to the Black, Azov, Caspian and Aegean Sea basins, but the fish has been extirpated from the last and it is predicted that the remaining natural population will follow soon due to over fishing. The starry sturgeon is an anatropous species, which migrates up rivers to spawn.

Stellate Sturgeon or Starry Sturgeon

The starry sturgeon or Stellate Sturgeon reaches about 220 cm (7.2 ft) in length and weighs up to 80 kg (180 lb). It is a slim-bodied fish easily distinguished from other sturgeons by its long, thin and straight snout. A row of five small barbells lies closer to the mouth than to the tip of the snout. The scales on the lateral line number between thirty and forty and these features distinguish this fish from the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii). The maximum reported age for this species is 27 years.

Facts and figures of Stellate Sturgeon:
  • Acipenser stellatus was always rare in the Middle and Upper Danube, but also ascended several tributaries as Prut, Tisza, Drava, Sava and Morava.
  • Stellate Sturgeons migrate in spring and autumn. Males remain at spawning sites for up to six weeks, females for only 10-12 days.
  • Stellate Sturgeons stop eating once they start their migration. After spawning, they return to the sea quickly where they begin feeding again.
  • 87% decline in global commercial catch reflects the decline in species population.
  • 55,000 sturgeons found dead in the Sea of Azov in 1990 as the result of pollution.
  • 72.5% is the decline of Stellate Sturgeon catch over a 4-year period according to data from Romania.
The starry sturgeon is an important commercial species of fish. It is one of the three most important species for caviar along with the Beluga sturgeon and the Persian sturgeon. Its flesh is considered an expensive delicacy in the Caspian region. It is used to make kebabs, or is consumed pan fried, broiled, or smoked.